Meta: What makes computers so versatile to work on so many other devices? How can they become so unusually useful? And how can it work exactly like that? Please read the information below!
In the 1940s, Thomas Watson – Chairman of a multinational computer technology group based in Armonk, New York, USA, predicted that: The world will not need more than “five computers”. Sixty years later, the number of computer users in the world increased to one billion!. Clearly, computers have changed a lot in that time. In the 1940s, computers were a strange scientific phenomenon and major military support authorized by the government, each worth up to millions of dollars. Even today most computers are used in everyday appliances from microwaves to mobile phones and digital radios.
What is a computer?
Computers are electronic devices used to process information – in other words, information processors. The computer carries hard information (or data) at one end, stores the information until it is ready to operate, types and processes the information, and then quickly delivers the result to the other end. All of these processes have a unique name: the place to get information is called input, storage information is memory (or storage), information processing and Putting the result out is called an output.
– Input: For example, the keyboard and mouse are input units – places that receive information into a computer that needs processing. If you use a microphone and speech recognition software, it is a different type of input.
– Memory storage: The computer can store all your documents and files on a hard drive: very large storage memory. Smaller devices that resemble computers such as digital cameras and mobile phones that use other types of storage such as memory cards.
– Processor: The computer microprocessor (known as a pre-set programmed data processing circuit) is a deeply embedded microchip. It works extremely strong and heats up during processing. That’s why there’s a cooling fan inside the computer – so the computer doesn’t get too hot!
– Output: The computer has an LCD screen that displays high-resolution images (details) and speakers for audio output. You can also equip a color inkjet printer on the table to print document.
About computer program
Today, most computer users rely on pre-written programs such as Microsoft Word and Excel or download applications for tablets and phones without having to do many things like before. Today, almost no one writes such programs anymore, which is a pity, because it is really very interesting and useful. Everyone sees computers as a tool to help them work, not just the complex electronic devices that need to have the program installed in advance. Some people will find it more useful because we can do much better than computer programs. Once again, if we all rely on the computer programs and applications available, someone will have to write them down and that skill needs to be retained. Fortunately, there are many people who are interested in computer programs recently. “Coding” (the official name of a program, sometimes called “code”) is used to teach in schools as easy to use programming languages as Scratch. Interest-based development is related to personal gadgets like the Pi Raspberry and Arduino. And the Code Clubs is a place where volunteers teach children how to code, and they are everywhere in the world.
Typical structure of a computer
That is the basic structure behind an operating system: the main software in the computer (necessary) controls the basic tasks at the input, the output, the storage and the processor. You can think of the operating system as the “base” of software on the computer on which other programs (called applications) are built. The operating system based on the basic program components on a computer is called the Basic Input / Output System (BIOS), which is the relation between the software operating system and the hardware operating system.
Different from the operating system, the basic Input / Output system is usually the same, the BIOS does not change from one computer to another according to hardware configuration and it is usually written by hardware manufacturers. The BIOS is not a hardware but a software: it is a semi-permanent program that is stored on one of the main chips of a computer – known as the firmware (usually designed to may update regularly).